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Mary Brown Robinson was born in McAlester, in Oklahoma, on the 21stof October 1911. Bright young artist, she won in 1931 a scholarship for the Chouinard Art Institute of Los Angeles. She got her diploma two years later, but, didn't find work, so she came back to live for a while at her parents in San Jose. She dreamed about a painter's career, however the economic situation linked to the great depression is difficult. On the 3rd of March 1934 she married Lee Blair, met in the Chouinard Art Institute. Talented artist, Lee Blair is appointed, at the age of 23, President of the California Watercolor Society. The couple Blair both exposed their watercolors in numerous private galleries. In 1938, when Lee Blair is hired to Disney studios as director of the color for Pinocchio, Mary takes her place in the animation department of Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer studios.
In April 1940, on the advice of Lee, she joins the team of creation of Disney studios. She makes her debuts on the sequence Babby Ballet of the second version abandoned of Fantasia, then creates numerous watercolors for the first project of Lady and the Tramp, written by Joe Grant. In June 1941, Mary Blair goes with Walt Disney and so me members of his team to a study journey of three months in South America. Admiring the work made by Mary Blair during this journey, Walt Disney appoints her artistic director of Saludos Amigos (1943), then The Three Caballeros (1945). During the next decade, she assumes the post of artistic director for the main projects of animated films. She abandons her favorite technique, the watercolor, for the gouache. It is on Alice in Wonderland (1951) that her influence is most significant. She realizes hundreds of preliminary studies, which are of use as base for the decorators. After the conception of Peter Pan (1953), she leaves Disney studios to dedicate herself to painting. In 1963, Walt Disney asks her to come back to assure the artistic creation of the attraction It's a Small World, intended for the international fair of New York (1964-65). This famous attraction is finally brought back to Disneyland in 1966. Marie Blair continues her creation work for the Californian Park and realizes mural frescoes for the Inner Space Building and the Circle-Vision Building of Tomorrowland.
In 1970, for her last collaboration with Disney, she signs the decoration of the Contemporary Resort Hotel of Walt Disney World in Florida. In the last years of her life, Mary meets with some personal and family problems, increased by alcohol... All this contributed to the deterioration of her physical and mental health and her art... Mary died in 1978, in Soquel in California, at the age of 67 (only)... Mary remains this day one of the artists of Disney the most appreciated (although at her time, many artists did not like her work and were jealous of its privileged relations with Walt Disney), although none of its drawings was used as such in a Disney animated film.
Babby Ballet (abandonned) (1941)
Lady and the Tramp (1943 concept arts)
Don Quichotte (abandonned)
Saludos Amigos (1943)
The Three Caballeros (1945)
Song of the South (1946)
Melody Time (1948)
So Dear to my Heart (1949)
Ichabod and Mr Toad (1949)
Alice in Wonderland (1951)
The Little House (1952)
Peter Pan (1953)
it's a small world (1963)
Andreas Deja takes part of the big current artists of the Disney studios. As his colleague Glen Keane, he has knew how to impose his style in the course of the years impose and become one of the most respected animator by his generation.
Andreas Deja was born in 1957 in Gdansk in Poland. From 1958 he lived with his family in Dinslaken in Germany. The young boy is very fast attracted by Walt Disney's universe. First of all with comics towards the age of five, then while watching The Jungle Book in the cinema at the age of ten the young person Andreas fell in love with cartoon movies of the firm. Some years later he wrote to Disney studios to propose them his services as animator. Still not having ended his secondary studies the answer was naturally negative but this refusal motivated him. So he continues his studies in Folkwang-Schule, a school of graphic arts in Essen in Germany. At the age of 23 he proposes again his services to the Disney studios which this time accepts! It is in 1980 that the already talented young man makes his entrance to the studio where he dreamed so much to work for a long time.
Andreas Deja makes his classes with the veteran Eric Larson, one of Nine Old Men and begins to work on the creation of characters, the search for suits and the animation for The Black Cauldron beside Tim Burton. He works then on The Great Mouse Detective, then in the creation and in the animation of some of the characters of Oliver and Company before spending one year in London as director of the animation on Who framed Roger Rabbit?
As director of the animation on The Little Mermaid, Andreas Deja supervised the animation of King Triton. He was then the director of the animation on Beauty and the Beast in 1991 for the character of the vain Gaston. He occupied the same post on the two next cartoons, Aladdin and The Lion King, and created the characters and the animation of Jafar and Scar. Runaway Brain over (the last short film on Mickey), Andreas Deja joins the team working on Hercules, then Fantasia 2000, Lilo and Stitch, Home on the Range and Bambi 2.
In 2007 he participates in the animated part of the film Enchanted in which he takes in charge the character of Queen Narissa before animating Goofy in his last short film, How to Hook Up your Home Theater. In 2008 Andreas Deja works on the animation of the future Great Classic The Princess and the Frog. The come back of the 2D in the Disney Great Classics will thus allow this great artist to return on the front of the scene, in our biggest enjoyment! Between these various productions he participates also actively in numerous making-of Great Classic such as that of Beauty and the Beast in 2002, The Lion King in 2003, Aladdin in 2004, The Little Mermaid in 2006, etc. Because besides being a great animator, Andreas Deja is also a big fan of the Disney animation feature films. If you want to know more about this great artist, I invite you to read this interview dating from his stay in Paris in 1995 (thanks to Ratgan from the Disney Central Plaza Forum for the link).
- The Black Cauldron (1985) : animator Taram and Eilowny
- The Great Mouse Detective(1986) : animator of the Queen of the mice.
- Who Framed Roger Rabbit? (1988) : director of the animation of Roger Rabbit
- Oliver and Company (1988) : character designer
- The Little Mermaid (1989) : director of the animation of King Triton
- The Prince and the Pauper (1990) : director of the animation of Mickey
- Beauty and the Beast (1991) : director of the animation of Gaston
- Aladdin (1992) : director of the animation of Jafar
- The Lion King (1994) : director of the animation of Scar
- Runaway Brain (1995) : director of the animation of Mickey
- Hercules (1997) : director of the animation of Hercule adult
- Fantasia 2000 (2000) : animator for Rhapsody in Blue + animator Mickey
- Lilo and Stitch (2002) : director of the animation of Lilo
- Home on the range (2004) : animator Slim et Junior
- Mickey's Twice Upon a Christmas (2004) : consultant animator
- Bambi 2 : (2006) consultant animator Bambi
- How to hook up your home theater (2007) : animator Goofy
- Enchanted (2007) : animator Queen Narissa
- The Princess and the Frog (2009) : director of the animation of Mama Odil
Here, some extracts from the Great Classics where the master's animation makes miracles :
If Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs can be considered as a jewel of the animation world at its release in 1937, Pinocchio is indubitably the perfect evolution. Walt Disney had underlined it well at this time, he was out of question for him to make a Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs 2, in spite of the numerous calls of the public to find their favorite heroes in new adventures. And so in the end of the production of Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs, the studio put in construction several films in parallel, all very far from the universe of Snow White. Among these projects we found Fantasia, Dumbo, Bambi, Peter Pan or Alice in Wonderland. It is in the middle of this creative medley that Pinocchio appeared. Inspired by Carlo Collodi's tale, the Disney version goes away from it on several points, deleting some characters, valuing the others, smoothing numerous elements to fit all this universe in the mould of the Disney productions. But it doesn't matter, because this version of the small wooden marionette is still considered as the most beautiful never realized today! Second full-length film and Walt Disney already achieved perfection. The reasons of this success are numerous: experience increased thanks to the acquired experience on Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs, the extraordinary talents (Gustaf Tenggren, Joe Grant, Claude Coats, Marc Davis, Franck Thomas, etc.) and also a colossal budget for this time! It is that after the reserved succes of the film in cinemas (the European market having already entered the Second World War) that the budget assigned to the full-length films of the firm had been revised downwards. Below is a first gallery of pictures dedicated to the film focused on the model sheets of the various characters.
Gustave Tenggren's drawings :
44th Disney Great Classic, Home on the Range released in 2004 is also the last Disney in date realized in 2D. In view of the very big success of the cartoon movies in 3D (and particularly those of Pixar), Disney made a decision in the very unfortunate consequences: close its 2D department. The announcement of this closure raised the discontentment from the fans community who did not understand why the firm so much wished to make only of the 3D while its support of preference was always the 2D. But what Disney (and so some fans) did not understand was that it is not the support which makes that a film is good, it is above all the story! To go over to the 3D changed nothing, it was even worse (Chicken Little and Meet the Robinsons take part of the most important failures of the studio).
So with Home on the range a historic page of the studio was turned, a modest film certainly but not deprived of quality. It is a part with The Emperor's New Groove and Lilo and Stitch (two very beautiful surprises) of these films with reduced budget but where the stories and the characters seem bizarrely much better worked!
The story of these three cows of the Wild West is really pleasant to follow, and their well dipped character makes them hilarious, in particular Maggy leader of the trio, one true rebel cow! The graphic style of the film remind strongly the one of the cartoons of the 40's and 50's, with its sets in bright colors and its very angular characters, which happiness to find a style so catchy! But you will better realize it with drawings posted at the bottom of this article.
I said that it was the last one Disney in 2D... Well not! Since John Lasseter's arrival to the head of the animation department of Disney, things moved a lot and one of his first decisions was to open again the 2D department! New 2D projects are then put in construction like the very promising The Princess and the Frog which will be released next year in the theaters, it is not a good new?
Tarzan is the 37th Great Classic of the Disney studios. It takes part of rare full-length films of the company to have partially been realized in France, in the studios of Montreuil (Walt Disney Feature Animation France). Created by Gaëtan and Paul Brizzi in the 80's, the studio started by realizing the animation of Astérix and the Surprise of Caesar. Acquired by Disney in September 1989 it was renamed Walt Disney Television. Having worked on series as Ducktales, TaleSpin, Darkwing Duck or Goof Troops, the studio was integrated in 1994 to Walt Disney Feature Animation. And so they worked on the realization of Runaway Brain (the Mickey's last short film), The Hunchback of Notre Dame, Hercules, One by One, The Emperor's New Groove, Lorenzo, Destino, Brother Bear and of course on Tarzan. WDFAF closed its doors in 2003 at the same time as the Floridian studio.
The animation of the film was thus realized on two different continents, the big majority in the studios of Burbank in California and the other one in Paris, mainly concentrated on the character of Tarzan. His animation was entrusted to Glen Keane. It is the animator who decided that Tarzan should be animated in Paris. Glen Keane left thus several months for France. And so he discovered the magnificent statues of the Opera, of the Pont Neuf and of the Museum of Orsay, which inspired him strongly for the anatomy and the style of the character. That is what the master says about his Parisian experience: "Once in the studios of Montreuil, I found an incredible group of artists which had been formed in the classic drawing and which experience in anatomy was necessary for the animation of Tarzan. Each one of us bring our key point. The character was richer because they gave themselves all their best. A trust had been established between us, even if I was American and they French, that had no importance, we were all Tarzan ". Other inspiration of the character would come from the Glen's son, then fan of skate and snowboard. By seeing his son on his board, the animator had the idea of the most famous animation of the film: Tarzan "surfing" on the branches of a tree. Tarzan will thus have the attitude and the look of a surfer, what is better to modernize the character! The technique of the animation also allowed to make move the character as ever he did in live films. Here Tarzan can make great jumps, take creepers with its feet, move in an extreme dynamic way, etc.
A new graphic process was used for the sets of the film: the deep canvas. The directors wanted to create decorations sets are cooler as their central figure. Given the dynamism of its animation, sets owed to be in 3D to accompany as good as possible the body movements of Tarzan. But at the same time they had to get closer as much as possible to 2D sets in order not to contrast too much with the animation. It is then that the deep canvas process enters scene. This software allows to move into the sets, to follow the character in its movements. It is in fact 3D sets which are literally painted by hand on computer by means of a graphics palette. The result is then truly credible, we really have the impression to move into the paintings!
The songs of the film were entrusted to the famous singer Phil Collins, it is the first time in the history of the studios that a music star takes charge entirely of the songs of a full-length film. Besides composing them, Phil Collins also interpreted them. And not only in English, the artist took in charge the English, French, Spanish, Italian and German version while he had never sung in foreign language! Phil Collins's participation is not harmless, Tarzan is a film taking place in Africa, place where the rhythms are very important, as Phil was the ancient (excellent) drummer of the group Genesis it was the perfect candidate for this work.
The Disney version of Tarzan restored a blow of freshness in the growing old license of the ape man and made him enter the 21th century. Its dynamism, its modernity and its freshness make it one of the best full-length films of animation of the firm of these last ten years.
John Watkiss :
The artist in action :
Sleeping Beauty, released in 1959, is considered as the last Great Classic of the first golden age of the Disney studios which had begun with Cinderella in 1950 (although those coming later are also good but very different). Of a six million dollar budget, it was at that time the most expensive animated feature film ever realized. The film is even more ambitious than any other animated film of the studio, he will allow the animation to reach heights, to become a separate art.
Inspired by a tale of Perrault published in 1697 (re-written by Grimm brothers in 1812), the scenario of Sleeping Beauty was adapted by Ed Penner and Joe Rinladi who were inspired by both previous versions to write their own version. A first version of the story board was subjected to Walt Disney in June, 1952. He refused it. It presented too many similarities with Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs and Cinderella. Monopolized by the opening of Disneyland, the production of documentaries, films of fiction and emissions of television, he delegated Ken Peterson, Don Da Gradi and Ken Anderson to produce Sleeping Beauty. However he often attended the meetings of scenarios.
The animated film is wanted realistic, a live film was shot supervised by Clyde Geronimi and by Eric Larson to help the animators in their work. Never a Walt Disney's animated film had benefited from a preparatory work so advanced. The production of the film lasted five years instead of three usually because of the use of the Technirama 70 mm format (the sets were larger, they needed more time to realize them). Two multi plans cameras were used: one vertical for the scenes of forest and an other one horizontal when we enter inside the castle.
Artists as Albert Hurter, Gustaf Tenggren and Mary Blair had influenced the previous films, but never one of them had been at the same moment the creator of the graphic style of the film and the superintendent of the sets. Disney choose Eyvind Earle as artistic director of Sleeping Beauty. He realized between 1954 and 1959 hundreds of preliminary studies and panoramic sets in gouache, his favorite technique.
For the film's soundtrack, the choice was to adapt the music composed by Tchaikovsky for the Ballet of the same name in 1890. Walt Disney asked to a young musician, George Bruns, to take in charge the adaptation. Browns composed new melodies in mind of the great composer to answer the narrative requirements of the film.
The film's Premiere took place on the 29th of January 1959. In spite of a real esteem success, the astronomical budget was paid off only several decades later. Sleeping Beauty remains today one of the favorite animated films of the artists of Disney studios (source: Walt Disney, L'Age d'Or by Pierre Lambert).
Eyvind Earle's paintigs :
Make Mine Music is the eighth full-length film of the Disney studios. Released on the 15th of 1946 in the United States, it is the first film released during the post-war years. During almost four years, Disney studios had been requisitioned by the American army to create propaganda cartoon movies as well as others speaking about the friendship between the United States and the Latin America (Saludos Amigos, The Three Caballeros), patriotism was then current ! These various films allowed the studios to continue its activities during the war but engendered only very few profits, European market being totally closed. The solution was to realize low-cost films (Pinocchio, Fantasia or Bambi had cost a real fortune). And so during still some years the studio only released "package" films. Package films were in fact a series of short films put the one behind the others in order to create a full-length film of one hour and a half. Inaugurated in 1943 with Saludos Amigos, this style continued until 1949 with The Adventures of Ichabod and M. Toad.
Make Mine Music is composed with eleven short films of uneven quality. Some are real jewels: : The Martins and the Coys, All the Cats Join In, Casey at the Bat (which will continue in 1954 with, Casey Bats Again), Peter and the Wolf, Johnny Fedora and Alice Bluebonnet, The Whale Who Wanted to Sing at the Met. On the other hand, other are boring and rather inferior : Blue Bayou (realized as a continuation of Fantasia), Without You, Two Silhouettes, After You've Gone. The good short films were more numerous, we can say that this film remains interesting for any animation passionate.
Make Mine Music takes also part of the rare full-length animated films Disney didn't released in DVD in France (as Song of the South). It's a bottom when we know that Disney France set up a number collection which will never be complete (Make Mine Music is the number eight and Song of the South the number nine). The reason of this absence is apparently due to a law problem about the French soundtrack of the film, the soundtrack where we could find the voice of Edith Piaf on the short film Johnny Fedora and Alice Bluebonnet. The Americans had more luck than us, the film released there but truncated by one of its short films, The Martins and the Coys, considered too violent and making the apology of firearms!
Saludos Amigos, the sixth Great Classic of Disney studios released on February 6th, 1943. Its production began in 1941, after the return of a group of artists of the studios of a great journey in South America. The aim of this journey was to promote the American values and to ward off the rise of the Nazi influence in the various countries of the South of the continent.
Time were hard in Disney studios, after the closing of the European market in 1939, a general strike bursts into 1941, most of the employees claimed the bonuses which had been promised to them during the production of Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs. Instead of satisfying his employees, Disney had then decided to put in construction new studios in Burbank, considering those of Hyperion Avenue too small. The proposition of the American government to send Walt Disney and his team of artists to South America arrived just at the right moment and permit him to go away from the conflict. Among the members who accompanied him we found Lee and Mary Blair, Franck Thomas or Marc Davis. From this journey will be born Saludos Amigos but also The Three Caballeros released in 1945.
Saludos Amigos is particular in several points. First it is the shortest Great Classic ever produced, 46 small minutes! Then it is the only Great Classic where appears Walt Disney himself, playing in the various live scenes incorporated between every animated short film. The time was to do savings, connect several short films between them was the best solution in order to don't to spend too much money. We will call very fast this kind of full-length film:package films. Saludos Amigos is composed of four short films :
- Lake Titicaca : Donald is playing the role of a lambda tourist who is visiting the surroundings of the famous lake.
- Pedro : We are following the adventures of a small plane crossing The Andes to deliver the mail.
- El Gaucho Goofy : Goofy puts himself in the skin of an American Cow Boy who find himself in the Pampa.
- Aquarela Do Brasil : Donald meets Jose Carioca, a parrot possessed by samba, who makes Donald taste the pleasures of his country.
Saludos Amigos will be very well received at its release in February 1943, even if someone blamed it for being much less accomplished than the ancient Great Classics. The film will even be a real triumph in South America. It was three times nominated in Oscars ® for the best music, the best sound and the best song (categories in which the animated films of the studio are often going to meet themselves).
Thirtieth of the Walt Disney Classics, Beauty and the Beast remains today one of the greatest masterpiece of the studios. It's the second film of the new golden age started with The Little Mermaid in 1989, Ducktales-The Movie : Treasure of the Lost Lamp and The Rescuers Down Under put apart. This key period rang then as a revival, the artists new generation of the studios having arrived at maturation while the ancients had just left retired. The magic word of the time was then to stay in the tradition of the big films while adding a touch of modernity which missed cruelly in the last productions.
The tale of Beauty and the Beast which inspired the film was published in 1756 by Jeanne Marie Le Prince de Beaumont. His history is inspired by a lot of similar narratives (Cupid et Psyche, Notre Dame of Paris, The Ghost of the Opera), thus we can consider it as very ancient, Le Prince de Beaumont having just handed it with current tastes. The main interest of the story was to make us understand that beauty did not come from the body but from the heart.
As The Little Mermaid, Beauty and the Beast is a long-time project. During the 30's and the 50's, some artists of the studios had already developed a project which never arrived at maturity. With the war and with difficulties to develop the second act of the story, the project was not able to be born, to the great displeasure of Walt Disney himself. So we have to wait 1987 for the project redoes surface at instigation of Roy E. Disney, then executive vice-president, who well planned to regain the prestige of the family company. The return to the fairy tales had made the success of the last production, The Little Mermaid, Beauty and the Beast had to push the nail.
Beauty and the Beast was the first production of a duet of young directors: Gary Trousdale and Kirk Wise. These two artists had arrived to Disney during the dark period of the 70's and 80's. Fascinated by animation since his youngest age, Gary Trousdale climbed little by little all the levels leading to Disney studios. Having intended himself for architecture studies, he met a representative of the school of animation CalArts who convinced him to join it. After three years of study the future director enters the production company Carter/ Mendez Productions. There he will be an animator, an illustrator and a storyboards creator for the television. He begins his career at Disney as an assistant on the special effects on The Black Cauldron. Then he arrived in the scenario department where he developed the story of Oliver and Company. Kirke Wise, as for him, prize-winner of drawing competition at the age of seven, entered the CalArts at the end of high school. During his last year in CalArts, he was engaged by Disney as independent animator. In 1986, he enters definitively at Disney, as animator on The Great Mouse Detective, then as scriptwriter on Oliver and Company. After the end of Beauty and the Beast production, the two partners did not leave each other any more and realized again two films together: The Hunchback of Notre Dame and Atlantis the Lost Empire.
The musics and the songs were composed by Alan Menken for the music and the big and regretted Howard Hasman for the texts who also produced the film. Both of them had been rewarded by two Oscars, the one for the best song for “Under the Sea” and the one of the best musics, both rewarding their work on The Little Mermaid. Unfortunately Howard Hashman disappeared in March 1991, six months only before the release of Beauty and the Beast and so he was not able to see his work put in honor. A tribute is made to him in the credits of the film: " To our friend Howard, Who gave her Mermaid her voice, and a Beast his soul...”.
After a lot of difficulties and reorganizations (the second act always raising so much problem), Beauty and the Beast was ended at the end of the year 1991. A first projection took place some months earlier in a festival of films in New York. The film was not totally finished, many plans were either not still animated or not put in colors. The public of New York was known to be a difficult public, breaking constantly some sugar on the back of Disney which he found too popular. What a surprise then to see them going out of the projection completely enthusiastic, the eyes sparkling , a true big success for the production! The official release of the film (November 13th, 1991 ) confirmed the tendency, Beauty and the Beast was an enormous triumph! It brought more than 403 million dollars to Disney, what was in the time the most profitable cartoon movie of all the history of the cinema. But it is not all, Beauty and the Beast was also the first animated feature film to be nominated for Oscars ® of the best film, the real consecration for all the team of the film and for the studio! The film was released again in IMAX format on January 1st, 2002 with a not insignificant success, before going out for the first time in DVD in October of the same year. This edition remains today one of the most beautiful and of the most complete never released, Beauty and the Beast deserved it well!
To finish here is a test of animation of the character of the Beast realized by Glen Keane :
Glen Keane was born in 1954, he is the son of cartoonist Bill Keane of The Family Circus fame (Glen's younger self is represented in the strip as "Billy") and Thelma "Thel" Carne Keane.Glen Keane interests in art began as a kid, observing his father's work as a cartoonist. In his early attempts to draw, his dad gave him a copy of Burne Hogarth's Dynamic Anatomy, and instructed him to analyze the body forms, and creative approach to life drawing. After high school, Glen applied to the California Institute of the Arts-School of Art, opting out of accepting a football scholarship from another college. In a lucky twist of fate, his application was accidentally sent to the Program in Experimental Animation (then called Film Graphics), where he was mentored under the now-renowned animation teacher, Jules Engel.
Keane left CalArts in 1974 and joined Disney the same year. His debut work was featured in The Rescuers as an animator for the character of Penny, alongside the famed Ollie Johnston , and Bernard. He then went on to animate Elliott the Dragon in Pete's Dragon. Keane animated the climactic bear showdown in The Fox and the Hound. In 1982, after being inspired by the groundbreaking film Tron, he worked with director John Lasseter (Toy Story, A Bugs Life,Toy Story 2, Cars) on Where the Wild Things Are, a 30-second test greenlighted by Tom Willhite that integrated traditional character animation and computer-generated backgrounds. But the project turned out to be too expensive, and the studio was unwilling to invest further in the planned featurette. Where the Wild Things Are was revolutionary for its time, and a predecessor to the famous ballroom scene in Beauty and the Beast.
Keane left Disney officially for some time, working as a freelance artist on Ratigan in The Great Mouse Detective. During a lull in production at Disney he did some work on The Chipmunk Adventure. He returned to Disney to work on the characters of Fagin, Sykes and Georgette for Oliver & Company. Keane rose to lead character animator, becoming one of the group sometimes referred to as the "Nine New Men". In this post he was responsible for animating some of Disney's most memorable characters in what has been referred to as the "New "Golden Age" of Disney animation.
Most recently Keane was the lead animator for Long John Silver in Treasure Planet. Currently, he is returning to his foray into the computer generated world as the director of Disney's upcoming CGI film, Rapunzel, slated for release in 2010. In Rapunzel, Glen and his team hope to bring the unique style and warmth of traditional cel animation to computer animation.
In addition to his work as an animator, Keane is the author and illustrator of a series of children's Bible parable books featuring Adam Raccoon and King Aren the Lion.
- The Rescuers (1976) (animator Bianca)
- The Fox and the Hound (1981) (animator Fox and the bear)
- Mickey's Christmas Carol (animator Willie the Giant)
- The Black Cauldron (1985) (character designer)
- The Great Mouse Detective (1986) (animator Ratigan)
- Oliver & Compagny (1988) (animator Sykes and Fagin)
- The Little Mermaid (1989) (animator Ariel)
- The Rescuer Down Under (1990) (animator Marahute)
- Beauty and the Beast (1991) (animator the Beast)
- Aladdin (1992) (animator Aladdin)
- Pocahontas (1995) (visual developpement, story and animator of Pocahontas)
- Tarzan (animator Tarzan)
- Treasure Planet (2002) (animator John Silver)
- Rapunzel (2010) (director)
Glen Keane drawing