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Date: Wednesday, 23 Apr 2014 06:00
Merriam-Webster's Word of the Day for April 23, 2014 is: bas-relief \bah-rih-LEEF\ noun : sculptural relief in which the projection from the surrounding surface is slight and no part of the modeled form is undercut; also : sculpture executed in bas-relief Examples: Jamal admired the bas-reliefs carved into the walls of the ancient Assyrian palace. "Nearly 50 people … came to the unveiling on Friday afternoon and watched as Mayor Marina Khubesrian and Rep. Judy Chu, D-Pasadena, pulled the covering off the bas-relief to reveal a father reading to his three daughters." — From an article by Zen Vuong in the San Gabriel Valley Tribune (California), March 22, 2014 Did you know? The best way to understand the meaning of "bas-relief" is to see one—and the easiest way to do that is to pull one out of your pocket. Just take out a penny, nickel, or other coin and examine the raised images on it; they're all bas-reliefs. English speakers adopted "bas-relief" from French (where "bas" means "low" and "relief" means "raised work") during the mid-1600s. A few decades earlier, we also borrowed the synonymous "basso-relievo" from Italian. The French and Italian terms have common ancestors (and, in fact, the French word is likely a translation of the Italian), but English speakers apparently borrowed the two independently. "Bas-relief" is more prevalent in English today, although the Italian-derived term has not disappeared completely from the language.
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Date: Tuesday, 22 Apr 2014 06:00
Merriam-Webster's Word of the Day for April 22, 2014 is: cock-a-hoop \kah-kuh-HOOP\ adjective 1 : triumphantly boastful : exulting 2 : awry Examples: The driver's pit crew was cock-a-hoop as they watched her cross the finish line to victory lane. "The cock-a-hoop pride and sensitivity of these former colonials were mere annoyances, almost impossible to take seriously for a nation with a world war to win." — From Patricia Brady's 2011 book A Being So Gentle: The Frontier Love Story of Rachel and Andrew Jackson Did you know? The adjective "cock-a-hoop" comes from a curious 16th- and 17th-century expression, "to set cock a hoop," which meant "to be festive" or "to drink or celebrate without restraint." Etymologists, however, are not entirely certain about the origin of that old expression. Although no one knows if it originally had any connection with the "rooster" sense of "cock," many people thought it did—and this perceived association influenced the current meaning of "cock-a-hoop." The cock is known for its triumphant crow, and "cock-a-hoop" is now used to refer to something triumphantly boastful.
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minutia   New window
Date: Monday, 21 Apr 2014 06:00
Merriam-Webster's Word of the Day for April 21, 2014 is: minutia \muh-NOO-shee-uh\ noun : a minute or minor detail Examples: The self-help book said it was easy to get bogged down in the minutiae of everyday life and fail to notice important opportunities. "Jackson, though, is smart enough to hire people to figure out salary caps and contract minutia." — From a column by Tim Dahlberg via the Associated Press, March 18, 2014 Did you know? "Minutia" was borrowed into English in the late 18th century from the Latin plural noun "minutiae," meaning "trifles" or "details" and derived from the singular noun "minutia," meaning "smallness." In English, "minutia" is most often used in the plural as either "minutiae" or, on occasion, as simply "minutia" (as illustrated in our second example sentence). Latin "minutia," incidentally, comes from "minutus," an adjective meaning "small" that was created from the verb "minuere," meaning "to lessen." A familiar descendant of "minutus" is "minute."
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cockamamy   New window
Date: Sunday, 20 Apr 2014 06:00
Merriam-Webster's Word of the Day for April 20, 2014 is: cockamamy \kah-kuh-MAY-mee\ adjective : ridiculous, incredible Examples: Ted missed the meeting again, phoning the receptionist with some cockamamy excuse. "Colin Farrell is good in this time-traveling romance, but it's tastefully cockamamie and increasingly gloppy." — From a movie listing in The Hartford Courant (Connecticut), February 20, 2014 Did you know? By the look and sound of it, "cockamamy" (also spelled "cockamamie") seems like an arbitrarily coined nonsense word—but a reasonable explanation for its origin exists. Supposedly, "cockamamy" is an altered form of the term "decalcomania," which denotes a process of transferring pictures and designs from specially prepared paper to surfaces such as glass or porcelain. The word "decalcomania" comes from the combination of French "décalquer," meaning "to copy by tracing," and "-manie," meaning "mania." In the 1940s, painted strips of paper with images capable of being transferred to the skin were called "decals" or "cockamanies." They were naturally regarded by many as silly novelties. Hence, in time, the variant "cockamamie" came to be used as an adjective meaning "ridiculous."
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oblige   New window
Date: Saturday, 19 Apr 2014 06:00
Merriam-Webster's Word of the Day for April 19, 2014 is: oblige \uh-BLYJE\ verb 1 : to constrain by physical, moral, or legal force or by the exigencies of circumstance 2 a : to earn the gratitude of b : to do a favor for or do something as a favor Examples: "The state's highest court Monday ruled that Long Island guitar-string maker D'Addario & Co. is not obliged to pay $227,000 in interest for reneging on a 2006 real estate deal." — From an article by Joe Ryan in Newsday (Long Island, New York), November 19, 2012 "He was already in Nashville and had left his warm jacket in Jackson. He asked if I could bring it to the airport, since we were on the same flight. I obliged, delivered the jacket and began a friendship that I treasure." — From an article by Dan Morris in the Jackson Sun (Tennessee), March 15, 2014 Did you know? "Oblige" shares some similarities with its close relative "obligate," but there are also differences. "Oblige" derived via Middle English and Anglo-French from Latin "obligare" ("to bind to"), a combination of "ob-" ("to or toward") and "ligare" ("to bind"), whereas "obligate" descended directly from the past participle of "obligare." Both "oblige" and "obligate" are frequently used in their past participle forms to express a kind of legal or moral constraint. "Obligated" once meant "indebted for a service or favor," but today it typically means "required to do something because the law requires it or because it is the right thing to do." "Obliged" is now the preferred term for the sense that Southern author Flannery O'Connor used in a 1952 letter: "I would be much obliged if you would send me six copies."
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lodestar   New window
Date: Friday, 18 Apr 2014 06:00
Merriam-Webster's Word of the Day for April 18, 2014 is: lodestar \LOHD-stahr\ noun : one that serves as an inspiration, model, or guide Examples: When she started her own business, Melinda used her father's motto—"Trust your instincts"—as her lodestar. "For a generation of computer programmers, astrophysicists and other scientists, Mr. Munroe and his online comic, xkcd, have been lodestars." — From an article by Noam Cohen in The New York Times, March 17, 2014 Did you know? The literal, albeit archaic, meaning of "lodestar" is "a star that leads or guides" and it is a term that has been used especially in reference to the North Star. (The first half of the word derives from the Middle English word "lode," meaning "course.") Both the literal and the figurative sense ("an inspiration or guide") date back to the 14th century, the time of Geoffrey Chaucer. The literal sense fell out of use in the 17th century, and so, for a while, did the figurative sense—but it appeared again 170 years later, when Sir Walter Scott used it in his 1813 poem The Bridal of Triermain.
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oneiric   New window
Date: Thursday, 17 Apr 2014 06:00
Merriam-Webster's Word of the Day for April 17, 2014 is: oneiric \oh-NYE-rik\ adjective : of or relating to dreams : dreamy Examples: The paintings, filled with fantastical imagery conjured by the artist's imagination, have a compellingly oneiric quality. "Most of the actors here are double and triple cast, and if they barely differentiate among their roles, that just adds to the oneiric effect." — From a theater review by Jeffrey Gantz in The Boston Globe, March 12, 2012 Did you know? The notion of using the Greek noun "oneiros" (meaning "dream") to form the English adjective "oneiric" wasn't dreamed up until the mid-19th century. But back in the early 1600s, linguistic dreamers came up with a few "oneiros" spin-offs, giving English "oneirocriticism," "oneirocritical," and "oneirocritic" (each referring to dream interpreters or interpretation). The surge in "oneiros" derivatives at that time may have been fueled by the interest then among English-speaking scholars in Oneirocritica, a book about dream interpretation by 2nd-century Greek soothsayer Artemidorus Daldianus.
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utopia   New window
Date: Wednesday, 16 Apr 2014 06:00
Merriam-Webster's Word of the Day for April 16, 2014 is: utopia \yoo-TOH-pee-uh\ noun : an impractical scheme for social improvement Examples: To some people, gated communities are visions of Utopia—safe, quiet, and out of the way. "Peninsula Players has entertained generations of audiences since it was founded in 1935 by a brother-and-sister team, Caroline and Richard Fisher, who dreamed of an artistic utopia where actors, designers and technicians could focus on their craft while being surrounded by nature in a contemplative setting." — From an article in the Green Bay Press-Gazette, March 12, 2014 Did you know? In 1516, English humanist Sir Thomas More published a book titled Utopia. It compared social and economic conditions in Europe with those of an ideal society on an imaginary island located off the coast of the Americas. More wanted to imply that the perfect conditions on his fictional island could never really exist, so he called it "Utopia," a name he created by combining the Greek words "ou" (meaning "no, not") and "topos" (meaning "place," a root used in our word "topography"). The earliest generic use of "utopia" was for an imaginary and indefinitely remote place. The current use of "utopia," referring to an ideal place or society, was inspired by More's description of Utopia's perfection.
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Date: Tuesday, 15 Apr 2014 06:00
Merriam-Webster's Word of the Day for April 15, 2014 is: Walter Mitty \WAWL-ter-MIT-ee\ noun : a commonplace unadventurous person who seeks escape from reality through daydreaming Examples: Alan is a Walter Mitty who loves to read travel books but rarely ventures beyond the limits of his own small town. "Ralphie eventually has to resort to his own Walter Mitty-esque flights of fancy to deal with his real-life predicament." — From an article by Bill Eggert in The Tribune-Democrat (Johnstown, Pennsylvania), December 14, 2013 Did you know? The original Walter Mitty was created by humorist James Thurber in his famous story "The Secret Life of Walter Mitty." In Walter's real life, he is a reticent, henpecked proofreader befuddled by everyday life. But in his fantasies, Walter imagines himself as various daring and heroic characters. Thurber's popular story was first published in The New Yorker in 1939. "Walter Mitty" has since become the eponym for dreamers who imagine themselves in dramatic or heroic situations.
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madeleine   New window
Date: Monday, 14 Apr 2014 06:00
Merriam-Webster's Word of the Day for April 14, 2014 is: madeleine \MAD-uh-lun\ noun 1 : a small rich shell-shaped cake 2 : one that evokes a memory Examples: "The evening started with wine and snacks, which included house-made charcuterie, cheese, and cornbread madeleines—the latter, I thought, a clever mashup of French and US traditions…." — From an article by Tom Philpott on MotherJones.com, March 11, 2014 "Every year, the family gathered in the backyard to roast a whole pig in a pit. Between the smell and the smoke, it makes for my own 35-pound madeleine." — From an article by Ana Menéndez in Gourmet, September 2007 Did you know? The madeleine is said to have been named after a 19th-century French cook named Madeleine Paumier, but it was the French author Marcel Proust who immortalized the pastry in his 1913 book Swann's Way, the first volume of his seven-part novel Remembrance of Things Past. In that work, a taste of tea-soaked cake evokes a surge of memory and nostalgia. As more and more readers chewed on the profound mnemonic power attributed to a mere morsel of cake, the word "madeleine" itself became a designation for anything that evokes a memory.
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Date: Sunday, 13 Apr 2014 06:00
Merriam-Webster's Word of the Day for April 13, 2014 is: tabula rasa \TAB-yuh-luh-RAH-zuh\ noun 1 : the mind in its hypothetical primary blank or empty state before receiving outside impressions 2 : something existing in its original pristine state Examples: "In those pioneering days, I was something of a tabula rasa in the kitchen, unless you count my knack for toasting a flawless Pop-Tart." — From an article by Andy Borowitz in Food & Wine, June 2003 "When city officials began handing out development contracts in the 1980s, there was no urban context to go by. It was as close as a city gets to tabula rasa: two square mile of parking lots, vacant warehouses and abandoned railroad tracks." — From an article by Matt Chaban in the New York Daily News, March 7, 2014 Did you know? Philosophers have been arguing that babies are born with minds that are essentially blank slates since the days of Aristotle. (Later, some psychologists took up the case as well.) English speakers have called that initial state of mental blankness "tabula rasa" (a term taken from a Latin phrase that translates as "smooth or erased tablet") since the 16th century, but it wasn't until British philosopher John Locke championed the concept in his Essay Concerning Human Understanding in 1690 that the term gained widespread popularity in our language. In later years, a figurative sense of the term emerged, referring to something that exists in its original state and that has yet to be altered by outside forces.
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recondite   New window
Date: Saturday, 12 Apr 2014 06:00
Merriam-Webster's Word of the Day for April 12, 2014 is: recondite \REK-un-dyte\ adjective 1 : hidden from sight : concealed 2 : difficult or impossible for one of ordinary understanding or knowledge to comprehend : deep 3 : of, relating to, or dealing with something little known or obscure Examples: "We hear from mathematicians that bees have practically solved a recondite problem, and have made their cells of the proper shape to hold the greatest possible amount of honey, with the least possible consumption of precious wax in their construction." — From Charles Darwin's 1859 book On the Origin of Species "The week after Michelle Obama went on Jimmy Fallon's 'Late Night' show to present the recondite art of Mom Dancing, her segment doomed Jay Leno in Fallon's favor." — From an article by Jeff Simon in The Buffalo News (New York), December 29, 2013 Did you know? While "recondite" may be used to describe something difficult to understand, there is nothing recondite about the word's history. It dates to the early 1600s, when it was coined from the synonymous Latin word "reconditus." "Recondite" is one of those underused but useful words that's always a boon to one's vocabulary, but take off the "re-" and you get something very obscure: "condite" is an obsolete verb meaning both "to pickle or preserve" and "to embalm." If we add the prefix "in-" to "condite" we get "incondite," which means "badly put together," as in "incondite prose." All three words have Latin "condere" at their root; that verb is translated variously as "to put or bring together," "to put up, store," and "to conceal."
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collimate   New window
Date: Friday, 11 Apr 2014 06:00
Merriam-Webster's Word of the Day for April 11, 2014 is: collimate \KAH-luh-mayt\ verb : to make (something, such as light rays) parallel Examples: "Amazingly, some astrophysical jets—streams of charged particles collimated and accelerated over astronomical distances—also exhibit a helical structure." — From an article by Mario Livio on The Huffington Post, November 20, 2013 "The higher cost and fixed eyepieces of the … binoculars are distinct disadvantages, but setup time is reduced—there's no need to collimate optics or align tube assemblies." — From a product review by Phil Harrington in Astronomy, February 2004 Did you know? One might expect a science-y word like "collimate" to have a straightforward etymology, but that's not the case. "Collimate" comes from Latin "collimare," a misreading of the Latin word "collineare," meaning "to direct in a straight line." The erroneous "collimare" appeared in some editions of the works of ancient Roman statesman Cicero and scholar Aulus Gellius. The error was propagated by later writers—most notably by astronomers, such as Johannes Kepler, who wrote in Latin. And so it was the spelling "collimate," rather than "collineate," that passed into English in the 19th century.
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kith   New window
Date: Thursday, 10 Apr 2014 06:00
Merriam-Webster's Word of the Day for April 10, 2014 is: kith \KITH\ noun : familiar friends, neighbors, or relatives Examples: Alan looked forward to the annual block party as a way to stay connected with his kith. "Many urban dwellers, embedded in networks of kith and kin, wouldn't dream of swapping the spiciness of the city for the white-bread pleasures of suburbia." — From an article by David L. Kirp in The New York Times, October 20, 2013 Did you know? "Kith" has had many meanings over the years. In its earliest uses it referred to knowledge of something, but that meaning died out in the 1400s. Another sense, "one's native land," had come and gone by the early 1500s. The sense "friends, fellow countrymen, or neighbors" developed before the 12th century and was sometimes used as a synonym of "kinsfolk." That last sense got "kith" into hot water after people began using the word in the alliterative phrase "kith and kin." Over the years, usage commentators have complained that "kith" means the same thing as "kin," so "kith and kin" is redundant. Clearly, they have overlooked some other historical definitions, but if you want to avoid redundancy charges, be sure to include friends as well as relatives among your "kith and kin."
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rancid   New window
Date: Wednesday, 09 Apr 2014 06:00
Merriam-Webster's Word of the Day for April 09, 2014 is: rancid \RAN-sid\ adjective 1 : having a rank smell or taste 2 : offensive Examples: Although considered healthier, unsaturated fats become rancid much more easily than saturated fats do. "Oddly enough, this wild conjecture is about as far as McGinniss goes into the rancid waters of tabloid gossip." — From a book review by Jonathan Yardley in the Washington Post, March 11, 2014 Did you know? "Rancid" has a fairly straightforward history; it derives from Latin "rancidus," itself from the Latin verb "rancēre," meaning "to be rancid" or "to stink." In addition to the related words "rancidness" and "rancidity," another descendant of "rancēre" in English is "rancor," meaning "bitter deep-seated ill will." ("Rancor" passed through Middle French rather than being borrowed into English directly.) These days, "rancid" also has developed a second, extended sense which is used in the context of offenses to less literal or physical senses than those of smell or taste, and you might see references to "rancid behavior" or "a rancid personality."
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virescent   New window
Date: Tuesday, 08 Apr 2014 06:00
Merriam-Webster's Word of the Day for April 08, 2014 is: virescent \vuh-RESS-unt\ adjective : beginning to be green : greenish Examples: Buds formed on the bare trees, infusing the stark branches with a slight virescent tint. "While Heisman Trophy winner and National Football League quarterback Tim Tebow read 'Green Eggs and Ham,' during Dr. Seuss Week, Lincoln Elementary kindergarten teacher Mary Jo Bures quietly slipped away to a meeting. None of the kindergartners noticed, their eyes fixated on the screen, their ears absorbing the story of Sam I Am and his never wavering quest to get the narrator to try the virescent foods." — From an article by Chris Dunker in the Beatrice Daily Sun (Nebraska), February 25, 2014 Did you know? "Virescent" first appeared in English in 1826. It derives from the present participle of "virescere," a Latin verb meaning "to become green" and a form of another verb, "virēre," meaning "to be green." "Virēre" also gave us another adjective meaning green, "verdant," only the route to that adjective takes a stop at Old French "verdoier" ("to be green"). "Virescent" has seen occasional general use, as when Thomas Hardy wrote, in his 1881 novel A Laodicean, of "[t]he summer … tipping every twig with a virescent yellow." But it is nowadays found most frequently in scientific contexts, especially those pertaining to botany.
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spandex   New window
Date: Monday, 07 Apr 2014 06:00
Merriam-Webster's Word of the Day for April 07, 2014 is: spandex \SPAN-deks\ noun : any of various elastic textile fibers made chiefly of polyurethane; also : clothing made of this material Examples: While spandex is appropriate for running races and perhaps errands too, few of us can get away with donning it in the workplace. "[Olympic bobsled brakeman Chris] Fogt says his athletic life and his military career have some similarities, particularly the camaraderie forged in the trenches…. 'For us, it's obviously slightly different. Your life's not in danger. At the same time, you're sliding down an icy track in a bathtub with four men in spandex. You get very close.'" — From an article by Rick Maese in the Washington Post, February 24, 2014 Did you know? Spandex is a fiber that has had an impact on fashion high and low, casual and formal, outer and under. It's not a trademark, as a number of the names of other fibers are, among them "Dacron," "Lycra," and "Orlon." It's a generic term, coined in 1959 as an anagram of the word "expands." Anagrammatic coinages are not common; the only other in our dictionaries that the average person is likely to be familiar with is "sideburns." "Sideburns" is an anagram (and synonym) of "burnsides," from Ambrose E. Burnside, a Union general in the American Civil War credited with originating the fashion (in the U.S., at least) also known as "side-whiskers."
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Date: Sunday, 06 Apr 2014 06:00
Merriam-Webster's Word of the Day for April 06, 2014 is: epistolary \ih-PIST-uh-lair-ee\ adjective 1 : of, relating to, or suitable to a letter 2 : contained in or carried on by letters 3 : written in the form of a series of letters Examples: "Jonathan Franzen, with whom he had struck up an epistolary friendship, offered to get together that April when he was in Boston." — From D.T. Max's 2012 biography Every Love Story is a Ghost Story: A Life of David Foster Wallace "If we replace simple letters with their instant always-on alternatives, we relinquish so much epistolary architecture too. The elegant opening address and sign-off, the politeness of tone and the correct grammar and spelling." — From an article by Simon Garfield in The Courier-Journal (Louisville, Kentucky), February 14, 2014 Did you know? "Epistolary" was formed from the noun "epistle," which refers to a composition written in the form of a letter to a particular person or group. In its original sense, "epistle" refers to one of the 21 letters (such as those from the apostle Paul) found in the New Testament. Dating from the 13th century, "epistle" came to English via Anglo-French and Latin from the Greek noun "epistolē," meaning "message" or "letter." "Epistolē," in turn, came from the verb "epistellein," meaning "to send to" or "to send from." "Epistolary" appeared in English four centuries after "epistle" and can be used to describe something related to or contained in a letter (as in "epistolary greetings") or composed of letters (as in "an epistolary novel").
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debunk   New window
Date: Saturday, 05 Apr 2014 06:00
Merriam-Webster's Word of the Day for April 05, 2014 is: debunk \dee-BUNK\ verb : to expose the sham or falseness of Examples: At the premiere of their new movie, the actor and actress addressed the media to debunk the rumor that they were dating. "Illusionists and comedians Penn and Teller have made a career out of pulling back the curtain, whether to reveal the methods magicians employ in their tricks or to debunk pseudoscientific claptrap on their former television series." — From a movie review by Marc Mohan in The Oregonian (Portland) , March 7, 2014 Did you know? If you guessed that "debunk" has something to do with "bunk," meaning "nonsense," you're correct. We started using "bunk" at the beginning of the 20th century. (It derived, via "bunkum," from a remark made by a congressman from Buncombe county, North Carolina.) A little less than 25 years later, "debunk" was first used in print for the act of taking the "bunk" out of something. There are plenty of synonyms for "debunk," including "disprove," "rebut," "refute," and the somewhat rarer "confute." Even "falsify" can mean "prove something false," in addition to "make something false." "Debunk" itself often suggests that something is not merely untrue, but also a sham; one can simply disprove a myth, but if it is "debunked," the implication is that it was a grossly exaggerated or foolish claim.
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narwhal   New window
Date: Friday, 04 Apr 2014 06:00
Merriam-Webster's Word of the Day for April 04, 2014 is: narwhal \NAHR-wahl\ noun : an arctic cetacean (Monodon monoceros) about 20 feet (6 meters) long with the male having a long twisted ivory tusk Examples: In medieval times, the tusk of the narwhal was sometimes passed off and sold as the horn of the fabled unicorn. "Polar bears and narwhals—some of the Arctic's most unusual and beloved creatures—are the focus of a family activity day at the Whatcom Museum, part of its continuing events in support of the 'Vanishing Ice' exhibit." — From an article by Robert Mittendorf in The Bellingham Herald (Washington), January 9, 2014 Did you know? The narwhal is a toothed whale found throughout arctic waters. Its Latin binomial, Monodon monoceros, is derived from the Greek words for "single-toothed" and "single-horned." Its English name (also sometimes spelled "narwhale") comes from the Norwegian and Danish "narvhal" and the Swedish "narval," words which are probably a modification of the Icelandic "nárhvalur," which comes from the Old Norse "nāhvalr." In Old Norse "hvalr" means "whale" and is akin to the Old English "hwæl," the ancestor of the Modern English "whale." The first element of "nāhvalr" is believed to be "nār," the Old Norse word for "corpse," from the resemblance of the animal's color to that of a human corpse.
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