More pollution causes thunderstorms to leave behind larger, deeper, longer lasting clouds, according to a new paper which can help provide a gauge for the accuracy of weather and climate models.
Researchers had thought that pollution causes larger and longer-lasting storm clouds by making thunderheads draftier through a process known as convection. But atmospheric scientist Jiwen Fan and her colleagues show that pollution instead makes clouds linger by decreasing the size and increasing the lifespan of cloud and ice particles. The difference affects how scientists represent clouds in climate models.
A new paper says that two compounds derived from garlic, diallyl sulfide and ajoene, significantly reduce the contamination risk of Cronobacter sakazakii in the production of dry infant formula powder.
The discovery could make the product safer to consume, easing the minds of new mothers who can't or opt not to breastfeed.
"A trace dose of these two compounds is extremely effective in killing C. sakazakii in the food manufacturing process," says Xiaonan Lu, corresponding author and assistant professor of food safety engineering at the University of British Columbia. "They have the potential to eliminate the pathogen before it ever reaches the consumer."
Our Galaxy may have been swallowing "pills" — clouds of gas with a magnetic wrapper — to keep making stars for the past eight billion years, according to CSIRO astronomer Dr. Alex Hill and colleagues, in their study of the Smith Cloud, a large gas cloud falling into our Galaxy from intergalactic space.
Named after its discoverer, Gail Bieger (née Smith), the Smith Cloud is at least two million times the mass of our Sun. If it were visible to the naked eye, it would look 20 times wider than the full Moon. The Smith Cloud is one of thousands of "high velocity clouds" of hydrogen gas flying around the outskirts of our Galaxy.
The authors say this the first study to show that mindfulness training can be used in combination with cognitive behavioral therapy to protect attentional functioning in high-risk incarcerated youth.
Type E botulism, a neuromuscular disease caused when birds eat fish infected with toxin-producing bacteria, has become a deadly menace that stalks the loons, gulls and other water birds of the Great Lakes region.
Cases of the disease are on the rise, killing approximately 10,000 more waterfowl in 2007 than when it was first reported in 1963.
To understand die-off origin and distribution, ocean engineers from the Florida Atlantic University Institute for Ocean Systems Engineering in Dania Beach, Florida are using their expertise in experimental hydrodynamics. They have teamed with the U.S. Geological Survey to help develop a novel way of tracking waterfowl carcasses to determine the source of lethal outbreaks that infect fish eaten by waterbirds.
Researchers have built a small vehicle whose flying motion resembles the movements of those boneless, pulsating, water-dwelling creatures we call jellyfish.
Their presentation at the American Physical Society's Division of Fluid Dynamics meeting in Pittsburgh,demonstrates a new method of flight that could transport miniaturized future robots for surveillance, search-and-rescue, and monitoring of the atmosphere and traffic.
NASA should trademark 'has implications for life on other planets' - every other month there are claims about habitable exoplanets, but they are based on statistical wobbles and it isn't informing the public as well it such claims could because the habitable planet zones are not narrow enough.
Instead, we should be taking a more conservative approach to bold assertions - being conservative is the essence of science. And that means looking at habitable zones where life-sustaining planets might exist: planets that have liquid water and solid or liquid surfaces, as opposed to gas giants like Jupiter or Saturn.
In the modern world of long-distance travel, many people have experienced circadian-rhythm disruption, especially after traveling across time zones.
The physiology that affects modulating our biological "clocks" to combat jet lag or cope with alternating shifts is complex. A new paper in The Journal of General Physiology says BK ("Big Potassium") channels, which are activated during nerve impulses and can reduce neuronal excitability, affect a variety of physiological functions
and that helps explain some of the biophysical processes underlying regulation of circadian rhythms.
Many owl species have developed specialized plumage to effectively eliminate the aerodynamic noise from their wings, allowing them to hunt and capture their prey in silence. And owls are vicious. Imagine the Go Pro footage you would get if you stuck one of those on an owl for the evening.
A research group working to solve the mystery of exactly how owls achieve this acoustic stealth presented their findings at the American Physical Society's (APS) Division of Fluid Dynamics meeting over the weekend in Pittsburgh and hope their work on "silent owl technology" will help the design of aircraft, wind turbines, and submarines.
It's Black Friday in the US - the day after Thanksgiving and was once the beginning of the Christmas season. That means a lot of shopping and that means a lot of anxiety about local retailers versus online vendors.
It turns out that local stores, especially big box retailers, have known the secret all along; people don't like to wait. If an event is far off or the price is substantially different, people will shop online. If they even have a hint that Amazon or others are taking orders for a third party, and that third party may end up shipping after Christmas, buying local looks a lot better.
Viruses keep it simple and that makes them smart - though they are too elementary to be able to reproduce by themselves, they exploit the reproductive "machinery" of cells by inserting pieces of their own DNA so that it is transcribed by the host cell.
To do this, they first have to inject their own genetic material into the cells they infect.
An international team of researchers has studied how this occurs and how long it takes for this process to be completed.
For many years scientists and engineers have been trying to provide low-cost solar energy by developing a cheap solar cell that is both highly efficient and at the same time simple to build, enabling it to be mass produced. Now, the team led by Empa researcher Ayodhya N. Tiwari has made a major leap forward: the researchers are presenting a new manufacturing technique for CIGS solar cells, in which tiny quantities of sodium and potassium are incorporated into the CIGS layer.
The special treatment alters the chemical composition of the complex sandwich structure – thereby altering its electronic properties, as confirmed by various methods including detailed electron microscope investigations.
A few months ago astronomers created a new 3-D map of stars at the center of our Galaxy which cleared showed the bulge at its core.
Previous explanations suggested that the stars that form the bulge are in banana-like orbits, but a paper published in Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society suggests that the stars probably move in peanut-shell or figure of eight-shaped orbits instead.
Video games, including the violent shooter games which are found to be good and bad in various studies, may boost children's learning, health and social skills, according to a review of research published in the
The review comes out as debate continues among psychologists and other health professionals regarding the effects of violent media on youth. An American Psychological Association task force is conducting a comprehensive review of research on violence in video games and interactive media and will release its findings in 2014.
Epigenetics has been used for rather comical effect in some cases, with a whole lot of things being correlated to the diets of parents and even grandparents.
There is good news; your epigenetic heritage is not a prison. Rats whose mothers were fed a high-fat diet during pregnancy and nursing were able to stave off some of the detrimental health effects of obesity by exercising during their adolescence. Get the kids out and play and it doesn't matter how fat their moms are.
Rain as acidic as undiluted lemon juice may have played a part in killing off plants and organisms around the world about 252 million years ago during the most severe mass extinction in Earth's history, known as the Great Dying.
The cause of such a massive extinction is an ongoing scientific debate, centering on several potential causes, including an asteroid collision similar to what likely killed off the dinosaurs 186 million years later; a gradual, global loss of oxygen in the oceans; and a cascade of environmental events triggered by massive volcanic eruptions in a region known today as the Siberian Traps.
Spontaneous bursts of light,
which last trillionths of a second, change color as they pulse from within a solid-state block
and illuminate the unusual way interacting quantum particles behave when they are driven far from equilibrium. A way to trigger these flashes may lead to new telecommunications equipment and other devices that transmit signals at picosecond speeds.
The Rice University lab of Junichiro Kono said the phenomenon can be understood as a combination of two previously known many-body concepts: superfluorescence, as seen in atomic and molecular systems, and Fermi-edge singularities, a process known to occur in metals.
Though Europeans are commonly regarded by Americans as more accepting of climate science, when it comes to putting plans into action, that isn't the case. America has reduced its carbon dioxide emissions from energy back to early 1990s levels and its dirtiest emissions, from coal, back to early 1980s levels. Aside from mistaken ethanol and solar subsidies and mandates, this hasn't been done by mitigation, rationing or cost increases but by adopting cleaner natural gas.
People who get migraine headaches and also battle allergies and hay fever (rhinitis) endure a more severe form of headaches than their peers who struggle with migraines but aren't affected by the seasonal or year-round sniffles, according to a new paper in Cephalalgia.
About 12 percent of the U.S. population experiences migraine headaches and women get them three times more often than men. Allergies and hay fever — allergic rhinitis — are quite common as well, affecting up to a quarter to half of the U.S. population. They produce symptoms such as a stuffy and runny nose, post nasal drip and itching of the nose.
Using advanced methodologies that pit drug compounds against specific types of malaria parasite cells, an international team of scientists have identified a potential new weapon and approach for attacking the parasites that cause malaria.
The disease is caused by Plasmodium parasites, which are transmitted to humans by the infectious bite of an Anopheles mosquito. Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum are the most problematic of the parasite species. The former is the most widespread globally; the latter most deadly.