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Date: Thursday, 09 Oct 2014 01:30

Commotion outside house of infected nurse Teresa Ramos near Madrid. Credit: EPA

By Peter Barlow, Edinburgh Napier University

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Author: "The Conversation" Tags: "Public Health"
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Date: Thursday, 09 Oct 2014 01:00

Violent rhetoric appeals to disaffected young men because it gives them a challenge to express aggression as 'proof' of manhood. Credit: Sillouetted children playing as soldiers/Shutterstock

By David Plummer, Griffith University

Recent coverage of counter-terrorism raids in Australia featured hard-core gyms, anabolic steroids, nightclub bouncers, gangs and weapons. Footage from the Middle East regularly depicts truckloads of young bearded warriors bristling with ordnance.

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Author: "The Conversation" Tags: "Anthropology"
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Date: Thursday, 09 Oct 2014 00:00

Winners of the Nobel Prize in chemistry: Eric Betzig, Stefan Hell and William Moerner. Credit: Matt Staley, HHMI / Bernd Schuller, Max-Planck-Institut / K. Lowder

By Mark Lorch, University of Hull

Robert Hooke was a pioneer of microscopy, when back in the 17th century he drew stunning images of insects, plant cells and fossils. Since then microscopes that use light to magnify things we can’t see with the naked eye have, of course, improved. But, surprisingly, 300 years of engineering lenses hasn’t improved things all that much.

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Author: "The Conversation" Tags: "Chemistry"
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Date: Wednesday, 08 Oct 2014 23:30

Despite the publicity of high-profile celebrities having their iPhones hacked and private pictures distributed across the Internet, a new paper confirms that substantial numbers of teens are sexting – sending and receiving explicit sexual images via cellphone. Though the behavior is widely studied, the potentially serious consequences of the practice led the researchers to more accurately measure how frequently teens are choosing to put themselves at risk in this fashion.


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Author: "News Staff" Tags: "Science and Society"
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Date: Wednesday, 08 Oct 2014 23:01

The NASA satellites, Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) and Terra, have provided data on clouds, rainfall and the diameter of the eye of Super Typhoon Vongfong as it turned north in the Northwestern Pacific Ocean.

Typhoon Vongfong formed on October 2nd, 2014 in the southeast of Guam. Typhoon Phanfone, that recently pummeled Japan, formed near the same area in the western Pacific Ocean.


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Author: "News Staff" Tags: "Atmospheric"
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Date: Wednesday, 08 Oct 2014 22:30

What could the natural diversity and beauty of plant leaves have in common with the violin, one of mankind's greatest musical inventions? More than you think.

Dan Chitwood, Ph.D., assistant member, Donald Danforth Plant Science Center in St. Louis, Missouri
spends most of his time exploring genetic and molecular mechanisms underlying diversity in plant morphology - how leaf shapes are formed and what that means for a plant to grow and thrive. He also studies how leaf shapes change as plant species evolve to adapt in different environments. Research into why a desert-adapted tomato species can survive with little water, for example, sheds light on how leaf architecture affects the efficiency of plant water use. 


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Author: "News Staff" Tags: "Ecology and Zoology"
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Date: Wednesday, 08 Oct 2014 21:30

Gamma rays are the highest-energy form of radioactive waves known in the universe but how they're made and where they come from have been something of a mystery. 

Using highly detailed radio telescope images, a team of astronomers have pinpointed the location where an explosion on the surface of a star, known as a nova, emitted gamma rays.  A nova occurs in a star that is part of a binary system – two stars orbiting one another. One star, known as a dense white dwarf, steals matter from the other and the interaction triggers a thermonuclear explosion that flings debris into space.

It was from this explosion from a system known as V959 Mon, located some 5,000 light years from Earth, that the researchers think the gamma rays were emitted.


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Author: "News Staff" Tags: "Space"
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Date: Wednesday, 08 Oct 2014 21:14

"Keeping up with the Joneses" is a colloquialism for developing world desire to have the same or better status in society than peers. If someone gets a new car, you get a new car.

In some people, status is so important they suffer psychological distress if they lack status.

But it isn't just for the middle class in Western nations, say anthropologists at U.C. Santa Barbara, who found that the same need exists among the Tsimane, an egalitarian society of forager-farmers in the Bolivian Amazon. 


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Author: "News Staff" Tags: "Anthropology"
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Date: Wednesday, 08 Oct 2014 17:31

Adolescence is often a turbulent time for both genders, marked by biological changes and substantially increased rates of depressive symptoms.

But girls seem to take it a lot harder and a new paper in Clinical Psychological Science believes this gender difference may be the result of girls' greater exposure to stressful interpersonal events, making them more likely to ruminate, and contributing to their risk of depression.


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Author: "News Staff" Tags: "Psychology"
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Date: Wednesday, 08 Oct 2014 17:31
Image: Genetic Literacy Project

By Tabitha M. Powledge, Genetic Literacy Project

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Author: "Genetic Literacy Project" Tags: "Atmospheric"
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Date: Wednesday, 08 Oct 2014 17:18
I've lost count of how many computers I've built over the years, but I think it is safe to say that the Kano Computer was the easiest build ever. So simple a child could do it. Kano founders, Yonatan Raz-Fridman, Alex Klein, and Saul Klein, wanted to figure out what the next generation’s computer would be like, so they asked Micah, Saul’s seven-year-old son.

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Author: "Steve Schuler" Tags: "Applied Physics"
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Date: Wednesday, 08 Oct 2014 17:07
The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences has awarded the 2014 Nobel Prize in Chemistry to Eric Betzig of Janelia Research Campus, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Stefan W. Hell of the 
Max Planck Institute for Biophysical Chemistry and William E. Moerner of Stanford University “for the development of super-resolved fluorescence microscopy”.

Optical microscopy was once held back by a limitation: that it could never obtain a better resolution than half the wavelength of light. Helped by fluorescent molecules the Nobel Laureates in Chemistry 2014 ingeniously circumvented this limitation and brought optical microscopy into the nanodimension.

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Author: "News Staff" Tags: "Chemistry"
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Date: Wednesday, 08 Oct 2014 17:01

Pre-school kids have a lot to learn. They often don't even know how to tie their shoelaces or count to 100. But that is an applications issue. When it comes to skepticism, even kids at age 5 show critical thinking skills. 

A new study published in PLOS ONE finds that by the age of five, children become wary of information provided by people who make overly confident claims. 

Dr. Patricia Brosseau-Liard, a
Concordia University
postdoctoral fellow, recruited 96 four- and five-year-olds and then with University of British Columbia psychologists Tracy Cassels and Susan Birch had the youngsters weigh two important cues to a person's credibility — prior accuracy and confidence — when deciding what to believe. 


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Author: "News Staff" Tags: "Psychology"
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Date: Wednesday, 08 Oct 2014 16:35
The 21st century promises to bring a kind of science warfare only dreamed about in science fiction. Already it's become clear that it is possible to paralyze a large chunk of America and get policymakers in perpetual crisis mode, even with something as well-known as ebola.(1)

That kind of threat is getting mainstream attention now, but it has long been researched by government agencies that are in the business of predicting threats. And scientists working for them have recently created a hybrid bacteria - a cyborg mix of computer chip and genetically modified organism - that can not only detect infectious diseases but automatically mobilize to defeat them. This ain't your daddy's Deathlok.(2)

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Author: "Hank Campbell" Tags: "Microbiology"
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Date: Wednesday, 08 Oct 2014 13:31

A new study has pinpointed working memory as a cause of learning difficulties in people with schizophrenia.

Working memory is known to be affected in 1 percent of the population who have schizophrenia, but it has been unclear whether that has a specific role in making learning more difficult, said Brown University postdoctoral researcher Anne Collins, lead author of the paper
in the Journal of Neuroscience


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Author: "News Staff" Tags: "Neuroscience"
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Date: Wednesday, 08 Oct 2014 13:00

Though numerous experts and policy makers have called for hospitals to screen patients for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections and isolate anyone testing positive to prevent the spread "Superbugs" in healthcare settings, it's too economically burdensome.
 
Several states have enacted laws requiring patients be screened for MRSA upon admission but  two new abstracts, scheduled for presentation on Friday at IDWeek, the annual scientific meeting for infectious disease specialists, found universal MRSA screening and isolation of high-risk patients will help prevent MRSA infections but may be too economically burdensome for an individual hospital to adopt. 


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Author: "News Staff" Tags: "Immunology"
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Date: Wednesday, 08 Oct 2014 13:00

Substantia Nigra's dopamine producing cells degrade in Parkinson's disease Credit: Geoff B Hall - Own work. Licensed under Creative Commons via Wikimedia Commons

By Meredith Knight, Genetic Literacy Project

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Author: "Genetic Literacy Project" Tags: "Neuroscience"
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Date: Wednesday, 08 Oct 2014 12:30

Sauropods,  large, long-necked plant-eating dinosaurs such as Diplodocus and Brachiosaurus, are the largest animals to have ever walked the Earth, with the biggest weighing 80 tons.

Clearly, a single creature the size of 11 elephants would have needed vast amounts of food. How did multiple sauropod species live alongside one another in prehistoric ecosystems between 210 and 65 million years ago?

New research from the University of Bristol and the Natural History Museum, London details the community of the Late Jurassic Morrison Formation, a distinctive sequence of sedimentary rock in the western United States from which over 10 species of sauropod are known.


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Author: "News Staff" Tags: "Paleontology"
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Date: Tuesday, 07 Oct 2014 22:01

Researchers have created a molecule known as a peptide mimic that displays a functionally critical region of the virus that is universally conserved in all known species of Ebola. This new tool can be used as a drug target in the discovery of anti-Ebola agents that are effective against all known strains and likely future strains. 

Ebola is a lethal virus that causes severe hemorrhagic fever with a 50 percent to 90 percent mortality rate. There are five known species of the virus. Outbreaks have been occurring with increasing frequency in recent years, and an unprecedented and rapidly expanding Ebola outbreak is currently spreading through several countries in West Africa with devastating consequences.


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Author: "News Staff" Tags: "Immunology"
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Date: Tuesday, 07 Oct 2014 21:30

Using rats as model subjects, scientists have found that adolescents were at an increased risk of suffering negative health effects from sugar-sweetened beverage consumption.

Adolescent rats that freely consumed large quantities of liquid solutions containing sugar or high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS) in concentrations comparable to popular sugar-sweetened beverages experienced memory problems and brain inflammation, according to a new study. Neither adult rats fed the sugary drinks nor adolescent rats who did not consume sugar had the same issues.


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Author: "News Staff" Tags: "Neuroscience"
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